Topology is a fascinating branch of mathematics that describes the properties of an object that remain unchanged under “smooth” deformations. If we imagine objects to be made of clay, a smooth deformation is any deformation that does not require the discontinuous action of a tear or the punching of a hole, such as bending, squeezing and shaping. These deformations are called “continuous deformations“.

The picture below shows the topological continuous transformation of a sphere with two holes into an annulus (a ring shaped object bounded by two concentric circles).

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