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  • AMCL is a localization method that localizes your robot in a previously known map.
  • Gmapping is a SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) method that simultaneously generates a map and localizes your robot in it.

In a nutshell (for details on the difficulties of the SLAM problem see for example this overview paper), SLAM can be more brittle than pure localization as the map used for localization is not static.