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You are correct that AMCL does not build maps, it only localizes within an existing map. GMapping does build maps while localizing (SLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Mapping).

There is currently no way to "resume mapping" when using gmapping. See http://answers.ros.org/question/9448/loading-a-prior-map-with-gmapping/#13721 for a detailed explanation. Basically, the map image and yaml file do not have enough information for GMapping to resume from.

It is definitely possible to edit the map.pgm file in an image editor like gimp (or I guess gpaint but I've never used it). You should make sure you preserve the image size and resolution (or adjust the map.yaml parameters accordingly). See http://answers.ros.org/question/12217/effects-of-manually-editing-gmapping-maps/#18030 for some more discussion on editing the map. Note that this will affect AMCL but you still cannot edit a map and then resume mapping (since, as noted above, gmapping can't resume from the .pgm/.yaml map).