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I think there only 2 things here - and they are two different ways to specify what the success criteria for the planner are:

  • "joint goal" or "joint space goal" (same thing) - this means your goals are defined based on what angle each joint should be in at the end of the plan.
  • "pose goal" - this means your goal is defined on the final pose of the end effector. MoveIt will do Inverse Kinematics (IK) to find the joint angles required to reach this goal.

The reason it is called "joint space" is because the "configuration space" is defined by the number of joints in your robot arm and their allowable range of motions. The "configuration space" is a widely used notion in mathematics and planning - so you can find lots more information if you want to delve into that later, but really, all you need to decide now is: do you have a goal based on where the end effector should be? or based on what angle the joints should each be set to?