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The plain answer to your question would be (after having installed Docker):

docker pull ros:melodic

Or perhaps (if you'd like to use the GUI tools as well):

docker pull osrf/ros:melodic-desktop-full

To actually run something:

docker run -it --rm osrf/ros:melodic-desktop-full roscore

As I noted in the comments, there is more to this, so I would recommend taking a look at wiki/docker for a start.

Getting used to Docker can take some time, so I would try to get comfortable with it before trying to solve all sorts of ROS-related problems with it.

Finally: running things in a Docker container is never going to give you the same experience as running them 'natively' (ie: on your host machine): using GUI tools can get involved (although tools like osrf/rocker exist), you'll be mounting directories into containers all the time, file permissions can be difficult to manage and (in my opinion) Docker isn't really meant for what you are implying you want to do with it (ie: daily development).

If you're just starting out it may not be the easiest way to get going, but it is certainly a technique that would let you run ROS Melodic on an Ubuntu Disco setup.

The plain basic answer to your question would be (after having installed Docker):

docker pull ros:melodic

Or perhaps (if you'd like to use the GUI tools as well):

docker pull osrf/ros:melodic-desktop-full

To actually run something:

docker run -it --rm osrf/ros:melodic-desktop-full roscore

As I noted in the comments, there is more to this, so I would recommend taking a look at wiki/docker for a start.

Getting used to Docker can take some time, so I would try to get comfortable with it before trying to solve all sorts of ROS-related problems with it.

Finally: running things in a Docker container is never going to give you the same experience as running them 'natively' (ie: on your host machine): using GUI tools can get involved (although tools like osrf/rocker exist), you'll be mounting directories into containers all the time, file permissions can be difficult to manage and (in my opinion) Docker isn't really meant for what you are implying you want to do with it (ie: daily development).

If you're just starting out it may not be the easiest way to get going, but it is certainly a technique that would let you run ROS Melodic on an Ubuntu Disco setup.