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Measured topic frequency will depend on your CPU speed, memory bandwidth, queue sizes, message size, OS internal network buffer size, and whether you're using the C++ or python client for ROS.

At some point, publication and subscription will be limited by serialization speed, deserialization speed, or dropped messages in the publisher, or subscriber queues.

I've seen reported topic rates as high as 10k messages per second, mostly from users who are trying to benchmark ROS for small messages using C++ on both the publisher and subscriber.

I've seen users run standard x86 and ARM CPUs with message rates between 100 and 1000 messages per second in real applications without issues.

If you push ROS you will find limits, but it's kind of pointless unless you put those limits in the context of a real application.

Overall, know your application, develop appropriate requirements, and benchmark ROS on your desired computer system to determine whether it does or does not meet your requirements.