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An example of a dockerfile building ROS 2 from source can be found at https://github.com/osrf/docker_images/blob/master/ros2/source/source/Dockerfile

I. Some packages can't be found

python3-vcstool and python3-colcon-common-extensions can't be located using apt and does't seems to exist when searching with https://packages.ubuntu.com/ . The workaround seems to be to install them with pip3

Did you setup the ROS apt repository as specified at the beginning of the tutorial?

Python3 should be the standard for ROS2, why python-rosdep is needed and not python3-rosdep (wich in reality, python3-rosdep2 is installed).

The tutorial recommends to install python-rosdep because python3-rosdep and python-rosdep are not side-by-side installable and most ROS1 users already have python-rosdep installed. If you're working in docker you can use python3-rosdep

(wich in reality, python3-rosdep2 is installed).

This is the case only for the debian packages that are not maintained or released by OSRF. The OSRF packages are named python(3)-rosdep and there is no python(3)-rosdep2. You should use the ones from the ROS2 apt repository instead

Why catkin is still required as ROS2 should be using colcon/ament ?

catkin (the build system) and catkin_make (the build tools) are not used in ROS 2 and not required. colcon does rely on the package catkin_pkg to parse the ROS package.xml that are the same between ROS 1 and ROS 2.

ERROR: Rosdep experienced an error: Unable to handle package.xml format version '3'

This is because the version of rosdep installed in you container is too old. The one currently available in the ROS apt repository is 0.15.1 and not 0.11.8