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That is absolutely possible, but it is based on some intricate calculations that you need to do. The particular you are looking for is the "forward kinematics" of the robot you are using. This allows you to calculate the end effector of the robot based on its joint positions (rotational or translational joints). This is done by the use of Denavit Hartenberg parameters which are unique for every robot, and unless your is a mass produced one, you probably have to figure them out yourself. Check out this link https://blog.robotiq.com/how-to-calculate-a-robots-forward-kinematics-in-5-easy-steps . I should warn you that you need some mathematical skills since these are generally subjects studied at universities.

There is also something called "inverse kinematics" that calculate what position the joints need to be in in order for the end-effector to be at a specific point in space

That is absolutely possible, but it is based on some intricate calculations that you need to do. The particular you are looking for is the "forward kinematics" of the robot you are using. This allows you to calculate the end effector end-effector position of the robot based on its joint positions (rotational or translational joints). This is done by the use of Denavit Hartenberg parameters which are unique for every robot, and unless your is a mass produced one, you probably have to figure them out yourself. Check out this link https://blog.robotiq.com/how-to-calculate-a-robots-forward-kinematics-in-5-easy-steps . I should warn you that you need some mathematical skills since these are generally subjects studied at universities.

There is also something called "inverse kinematics" that calculate what position the joints need to be in in order for the end-effector to be at a specific point in space