In Rviz, if you enable a nav_msgs/Odometry topic corresponding to /base_link, it will display /base_link's positions over time. You can manually set the number of messages to store in Rviz and then you can see progress over time.
This, of course, assumes that you are correctly publishing an odometry message. This can also be done with a geometry_msgs/PoseStamped that is published based on your robot's position.