A practical way of doing this in any state estimation filter (which is what AMCL is) is to increase the process noise (noise in motion) relative to measurement noise (sensor noise). That's not as straightforward in AMCL. The way I've been doing it is by increasing the value of the odometry parameters (odom_alpha_1, etc.) But that affects the behavior of the filter at all times, not just when there's wheel slippage.
Another way would be to fuse your raw odometry with another sensing modality, such as an IMU. If that's not an option, you can feed odometry into the laser_scan_matcher and have that broadcast the odom to base_link transform (see the wiki page). I haven't tried this, but I'm planning to.