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You can check out the Coordinate Frames Convention.

In a nutshell,

  • odom to base_link is the position of the robot in the inertial odometric frame, as reported by some odometric sensor (like wheel encoders)
  • map to odom is a correction introduces by localization or SLAM packages, to account for odometric errors.
  • map to base_link is therefore the corrected pose of the robot in the inertial world frame.

These are dynamic transforms, and different components of the navigation stack are responsible for publishing them.

You can check out the Coordinate Frames Convention.

In a nutshell,

  • odom to base_link is the position of the robot in the inertial odometric frame, as reported by some odometric sensor (like wheel encoders)
  • map to odom is a correction introduces introduced by localization or SLAM packages, to account for odometric errors.
  • map to base_link is therefore the corrected pose of the robot in the inertial world frame.

These are dynamic transforms, and different components of the navigation stack are responsible for publishing them.